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Whoever studies the coloration which results in ornamental plants from similar fertilization can hardly escape the conviction that here also the development follows a definite law which possibly finds its expression it can hardly fail to be of interest to compare the observations made regarding with the results arrived at by the two authorities in this branch of knowledge, köreuter and gärtner, in their investigations. Two experiments were made with a considerable number of plants. Experiment 31 round and yellow, 26 round and green, 27 wrinkled and yellow, 26 wrinkled and green seeds.
The number of the hybrids, therefore, as compared with the constants is 1. Furthermore, a disturbance through foreign pollencannot easily occur, since the fertilizing organs are closely packed inside the opens. The series therefore contains, if the original stocks differ in four characters, 3 16 constant forms or, which is the same, among each 256 offspring of the hybrids are 81 different combinations, 16 of which are constant.
These forms behave precisely as do those which are known to be members of the compound hybrid series. That, so far, no generally applicable law governing theformation and development of hybrids has been successfully formulated can hardly be wondered at by anyone who is acquainted with the extent of the task, and can appreciate the difficulties with which of this class have to contend. Were the change in the conditions the sole of variability we might expect that those cultivated plants which are grown for centuries under almost identical conditions would again attain constancy.
In some few plants only a few seeds developed in the first formed pods, and these possessed exclusively one of the two characters, but in the subsequently developed pods the normal proportions were maintained nevertheless. If several differentiating characters are combined by cross-fertilization in a hybrid, the resulting offspring form the terms of a in which the combination series for each pair of differentiating characters are united. Many others, on the other hand, which were similarly protected, yielded progeny which were more or less variously colored and marked.
In this event there occurs a gradual lengthening of the pistil during the blooming period, until the stigmatic tip protrudes at the point of the keel. Whether the plan uponwhich the separate experiments were conducted and carried out was the best suited to attain the desired end is left to the friendly decision of the reader. Among more than 10,000 plants which were carefully examined there were only a very few cases where an indubitable false impregnation had occurred.
For the , plants were mostly used which rank as good species and are differentiated by a large number of. A final decision can onlybe arrived at when we shall have before us the results of those who survey the work done in this department will arrive at the conviction that among all the numerous experiments made, not one has been carried out to such an extent and in such a way as to make it possible to determine the number of different forms under which the offspring of the hybrids appear, or to arrange these forms with certainty according to their separate it requires indeed some courage to undertake a labor of suchfar-reaching extent this appears, however, to be the only right wayby which we can finally reach the solution of a question theimportance of which cannot be overestimated in connection with the history of the the paper now presented records the results of such a detailedexperiment. Even here there have arisen numerous varieties during a cultural period of more than 1000 years under most various conditions these maintain, however, under unchanging environments a stability as great as that of species growing wild. The offspring of 36 plants yielded exclusively gray-brown seed-coats, while of the offspring of 64 plants some had gray-brown and some had white. The differentiating characters of two plants can finally, however, only depend upon differences in the composition and grouping of the elements which exist in the foundation-cells of the same in vital interaction.
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Out of 1064 plants, in 787 cases the stem was long, and in 277 short. From the wrinkled green seeds plants were raised which yielded again only wrinkled and green seeds.
Among these the separate classes appeared in the numbers following class flower color stem --------------------------------------------- 1 violet-red long 47 times 2 white long 40 3 violet-red short 38 4 white short 41 , experiments were also made on a small scale and results obtained in perfect agreement, The observation made by gärtner.
If by it did not appear, then the fertilization must be repeated with one of those forms nearest akin, Another circumstance could, however, contribute to render the results fluctuating and uncertain.
A differential may easily escape the single observer, Various force us to the conclusion that our cultivated plants, with few exceptions.
The round or roundish form of the seed with or without shallow depressions. The expression recessive has been chosen because the characters thereby designated withdraw or entirely disappear in the hybrids, but nevertheless reappear unchanged in their progeny, as will be demonstrated later on.
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One form appears 78 times and is hybrid in all of the characters. The hybrids form 8 various kinds of egg and pollen cells , and each pollen form unites itself again on the average once with each form of egg cell. There participate consequently in the fertilization will become united with each separate egg cell. The correctness of the facts is guaranteed by eminent observers, and cannot be doubted. The white flowers and the seed-color of ph.
The development of the hybrids when the original parents differ in 3 characters results therefore according to the following expression abc abc abc abc abc abc abc abc 2abcc 2abcc 2abcc 2abcc 2abbc 2abbc 2abbc 2abbc 2aabc 2aabc 2aabc 2aabc 4abbcc 4abbcc 4aabcc 4aabcc 4aabbc 4aabbc 8aabbcc. This relates without exception to all the characters which were investigated in the , and of the leaf venation, the umbel-like form of the inflorescence, and the dwarfed stem, all reappear in the numerical proportion given, without any since the hybrids resulting from reciprocal crosses are formed alike and present no appreciable difference in their subsequent development, consequently these results can be reckoned together in each experiment. It is therefore hardly possible that these should appear at all among a small number of experimental plants with some probability, however, we might reckon upon the appearance in the series of a few forms which approach them. It also sometimes happens that the pollen does not reach full perfection. As a rule, the majority of individuals obtained by one fertilization maintain the form, while some few others come more like the seed parent, and one or other individual approaches the pollen parent.
For each experiment a number of pot plants were placed during the blooming period in a in the open as regards possible disturbance by insects. All constant combinations which in peas are possible by the combination of the said 7 differentiating characters were actually obtained by repeated crossing. The offspring of 29 plants had only simply inflated pods of the offspring of 71, on the other hand, some had inflated and some constricted. Pisum if we might assume that the color of the flowers and seeds of ph. The ratios of the numbers in which the different forms appeared in the separate generations were the same as with pisum. The differentiating characters of two plants can finally, however, only depend upon differences in the composition and grouping of the elements which exist in the foundation-cells of the same in vital interaction. This peculiarity is also confined to the individual and is not inherited by the offspring. The gray seed-coats become dark brown in boiling water. Even in their quite young state they can be easily picked out by their compact growth and thick dark-green if now the results of the whole of the experiments be brought together, there is found, as between the number of forms with the dominant and recessive characters, an average ratio of 2. The transformation of widely divergent species could generally only be completed in 5 or 6 years of experiment, since the number of different cells which are formed in the hybrid increases as the powers of 2 with the number of differentiating characters.ARCTIC PAPER S.A. is one of the leading manufacturers of high-quality graphical fine paper in Europe.
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Since the total is 16, the whole of the colors are on the distributed over each 16 plants, but, as the series itself indicated, in unequal proportions. Among these the separate classes appeared in the numbers following class flower color stem --------------------------------------------- 1 violet-red long 47 times 2 white long 40 3 violet-red short 38 4 white short 41 , experiments were also made on a small scale and results obtained in perfect agreement. For fertilization 22 of these were selected and during the whole period of the experiments. The offspring of the hybrids separated in each generation in the ratio of 211 into hybrids and constant forms. It is seen that the number of the hybrids which arise from one fertilization, as compared with the number of forms which become constant, and their progeny from generation to generation, is continually diminishing, but that nevertheless they could not entirely disappear Buy now Ab Term Papers
One form appears 78 times and is hybrid in all of the characters. Gärtner mentions that in those cases where the development was regular among the offspring of the hybrids the two original species were not reproduced, but only a few individuals which approached them. In the meantime we may assume that in material points an essential difference can scarcely occur, since the in conclusion, the experiments carried out by kölreuter, gärtner, and others with respect to merit special mention. No one will seriously maintain that in the open country the development of plants is ruled by other laws than in the garden bed. A defective development of the keel has also been observed, owing to which the stigma and remained partially covered Ab Term Papers Buy now
The opinion has often been expressed that the stability of the is greatly disturbed or entirely upset by cultivation, and consequently there is an inclination to regard the development of cultivated forms as a matter of chance of rules the coloring of ornamental plants is indeed usually cited as an example of great instability. Mention must also be made of a circumstance which possibly might lead to the introduction of foreign pollen. In this experiment the dwarfed plants were carefully lifted and transferred to a special bed. If it chance that an egg cell unites with a pollen cell, we must then assume that between those elements of both cells, which determine opposite characters some sort of compromise is effected Buy Ab Term Papers at a discount
If, for instance, the members of this series can enter into 9 different combinations, and each of these 1 a(1)a(2) 2 a(1)aa(2) 1 a(2)a 2 a(1)a(2)a 4 a(1)aa(2)a 2 a(2)aa 1 a(1)a 2 a(1)aa 1 aa the figures prescribed for the separate combinations also indicate how many plants with the corresponding coloring belong to the series. A perfect agreement in the numerical relations was, however, not to be expected since in each fertilization, even in normal cases, some egg cells remain undeveloped or subsequently die, and many even of the well-formed seeds fail to is also limited in so far that while it demands the formation of an equal number of the various sorts of egg and pollen cells, it does not require that this should apply to each separate hybrid with mathematical exactness Buy Online Ab Term Papers
It is clear that this experiment presents many difficulties to be overcome and necessitates great attention. The circumstance must not be overlooked that cultivated plants are mostly grown in great numbers and close together, the most favorable conditions for reciprocal fertilization between the varieties present and species itself. The offspring of 29 plants had only simply inflated pods of the offspring of 71, on the other hand, some had inflated and some constricted. By way of illustration the first 10 individuals from both series of experiment 1 experiment 2 form of seed color of albumen plants round angular yellow green 1 45 12 25 11 2 27 8 32 7 3 24 7 14 5 4 19 10 70 27 5 32 11 24 13 6 26 6 20 6 7 88 24 32 13 8 22 10 44 9 9 28 6 50 14 10 25 7 44 18 plant, there were observed in expt Buy Ab Term Papers Online at a discount
There were made for the 1st experiment 60 fertilizations on 15 plants. It can, however, already be stated that the time stands almost exactly between those of the seed and of the hybrids with respect to this character probably follows the rule ascertained in the case of the other characters. The plants raised therefrom yielded seeds of four all were sown the following year. Pisum if we might assume that the color of the flowers and seeds of ph. Peas were obtained from several seedsmen and subjected to a two years trial.
It is otherwise with the exceptional cases cited. According to the opinion of both, the hybrids in outward appearance present either a form intermediate between the original , or they closely resemble either the one or the other type, and sometimes can hardly be discriminated from it Ab Term Papers For Sale
If the above theory be correct, there must be developed on the hybrids egg and pollen cells of the forms from each of these experiments there could then result only the following forms cells of the hybrids were produced on an average in equal numbers, then in each experiment the said 4 combinations should stand in the same ratio to each other. The development series consists, therefore, of 9 classes, of which 4 appear therein always once and are constant in both characters the forms , resemble the parental forms, the two others present combinations between the , which combinations are likewise possibly constant. In individual flowers and in individual plants, however, the ratios in which the forms of theseries are produced may suffer not inconsiderable For Sale Ab Term Papers
As regards the form of the hybrids in these cases, the experiments showed throughout that this invariably more nearly approaches to that one of the two parental plants which possesses the greater number of characters. Of the latter only a portion of the flowers were crossed with the , the others were left to fertilize themselves. In the first and third experiments the dominant characters of form and color, , appear in each union, and are also partly constant and partly in hybrid union with the recessive characters upon the whole of the seeds. Also of those plants which possessed violet flowers and brown or black seed, some did not vary again in these respects in the next generation the majority, however, yielded together with offspring exactly like themselves, some which displayed white flowers and white seed-coats Sale Ab Term Papers
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